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December 10, 2002
Information Transmission Theory:
Daily Republican Newspaper's Secret
By Thomas Hobbs, M.S., Howard Hobbs Ph.D.

    PALO ALTO - Publishers of this newspaper were writing the program code for publishing our newspapers through the medium of GUI technology on the Internet. It was 1993, and the Internet was an ASCII jungle.
    While searching for graduate research papers at Stanford University, we came across a 1948 research study by Shannon describing a program theory on how applications for the collection, storage, and, dissemination of information might theoretically be stored and distributed on demand along network lines.
     We found Shannon's theoretical work to be of practical value in explaining and identifying the unusual properties and inequalities inherent in digital information compression, storage and distribution of information source code by means of electronic medium.
   In the last few years information network multi-source code techniques have been deployed based upon Shannon's original work which now seamlessly transmits information from point to point, without static or noise disruptions.
     Claude Shannon's "A mathematical theory of communication" was first published in two parts in the July and October 1948 editions of the Bell System Technical Journal. The information theorms represented below have appeared in a number of republications since the original 1948 version of Development of Information Theory:

Theorem 1 - Entropy


     The paper also appears in Claude Elwood Shannon: Collected Papers. The text of the latter is a reproduction from the Bell Telephone System Technical Publications, a series of monographs by engineers and scientists of the Bell System published in the BSTJ and elsewhere. This version has correct section numbering (the BSTJ version has two sections numbered 21), and as far as we can tell, this is the only difference from the BSTJ version.
     On Feb. 26, 2001 Claude Elwood Shannon, the mathematician who laid the foundation of modern information theory while working at Bell Labs in the 1940s, died on Saturday. He was 84.

Theorem 2 - Entropy Rate

    Shannon's theories are as relevant today as they were when he first formulated them. "It was truly visionary thinking," said Arun Netravali, president of Lucent Technologies' Bell Labs. "As if assuming that inexpensive, high-speed processing would come to pass, Shannon figured out the upper limits on communication rates. First in telephone channels, then in optical communications, and now in wireless, Shannon has had the utmost value in defining the engineering limits we face."

Theorem 3 - Mutal Information

     The 1948 "A Mathematical Theory of Communication" paper on information theory included this statement "the fundamental problem of communication is that of reproducing at one point either exactly or approximately a message selected at another point." Shannon's paper was an immediate success with communications engineers and stimulated the technology which led to today's Information Age.
     Shannon published many more provocative and influential articles in a variety of disciplines. His master's thesis, A Symbolic Analysis of Relay and Switching Circuits, used Boolean algebra to establish the theoretical underpinnings of digital circuits. This work has broad significance because digital circuits are fundamental to the operation of modern computers and telecommunications systems.
    Prefaced by Warren Weaver's introduction, ``Recent contributions to the mathematical theory of communication,'' the paper was included in The Mathematical Theory of Communication, published by the University of Illinois Press in 1949. 
     In a surprising new look at Information Theory, The Freedom of the Migrant by Vilém Flusser , translation from the German by Kenneth Kronenberg Edited and with an Introduction by Anke K. Finger, its author, Vilém Flusser an original European thinker of the latter half of the Twentieth Century, has a collection of essays on information theory, in which he raises questions about the viability of ideas of national identity in a world whose borders are becoming increasingly arbitrary and permeable.
    Flusser argues that modern societies are in flux, with traditional linear and literary epistemologies being challenged by global circulatory networks and a growth in visual stimulation. He says that these changes will radically alter the ways cultures define themselves and deal with each other. Not just theories of globalization, however, Flusser's ideas about communication and identity have their roots in the Judeo-Christian concept of self-determination and self-realization through the recognition of the other.
     Flusser (1920-91) was a German-Jewish philosopher from Prague who fled to Brazil in 1940. In 1963 he was appointed professor of philosophy of communication at São Paulo University; while there he also wrote a daily newspaper column.
     In 1972, he moved to France, and wrote books in both German and Portuguese, including The Shape of Things: A Philosophy of Design, Toward a Philosophy of Photography, and From Subject to Project: Becoming Human. Kenneth Kronenberg is a professional translator and the author translator of Lives and Letters of an Immigrant Family. Anke K. Finger is an assistant professor of German at the University of Connecticut.

Bibliography

         Cover,T.M., and Thomas, J. A., Elements of Information Theory,
           Wiley&   Sons, NY, 1991.

C. E. Shannon, ``A mathematical theory of communication,'' Bell System Technical Journal, vol. 27, pp. 379-423 and 623-656, July and October, 1948.

 
D. Slepian, editor, Key Papers in the Development of Information Theory, New York: IEEE Press, 1974.

N. J. A. Sloane and A. D. Wyner, editors, Claude Elwood Shannon: Collected Papers, New York: IEEE Press, 1993.

W. Weaver and C. E. Shannon, The Mathematical Theory of Communication, Urbana, Illinois: University of Illinois Press, 1949, republished in paperback 1963.
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Book Review
 
 
 
 
A First Course in Information Theory
by Raymond W. Yeung

INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY
TRANSMISSION, PROCESSING AND STORAGE

Incepted half a century ago, information theory is a classical yet modern field which is more vibrant than ever before. In particular, there have been a number of major research results on the foundation of the theory during the last ten years. These results enable information theory to be understood and explored in a way which has not been possible before, and they open new dimensions in the theory. In short, the depth of information theory is far beyond what we used to know. This book is an integration of the most fundamental topics in information theory plus a few selected advanced topics. All concepts and technicalities are explained with clarity. Except for a few classical results, all the results included here are not found elsewhere in book form. These include the theory of I-Measure, Shannon-type and non-Shannon-type information inequalities, and network coding theory. Some important implications of information theory in probability theory and group theory are also explained in this book.ITIP, the software package that comes with the book, is the only software package of its kind which can prove all Shannon-type information inequalities. It is an essential tool for all information theorists. This book is suitable for use as a textbook, or as a reference book with any other textbook in a course on information theory. It is also an essential reference for researchers working in areas related to this subject matter. `No one since Shannon has had a better appreciation for the mathematical structure of information quantities than Prof. Yeung. ... Yeung unveils a smørgasbord of topics in modern information theory that heretofore have been available only in research papers.'

Contents

1. The Science of Information. 2. Information Measures. 3. Zero-Error Data Compression. 4. Weak Typicality. 5. Strong Typicality. 6. The I-Measure. 7. Markov Structures. 8. Channel Capacity. 9. Rate Distortion Theory. 10. The Blahut-Arimoto Algorithms. 11. Single-Source Network Coding. 12. Information Inequalities. 13. Shannon-Type Inequalities. Appendix 13A: The Basic Inequalities and the Polymatroidal Axioms. 14. Beyond Shannon-Type Inequalities. 15. Multi-Source Network Coding. Appendix 15A: Approximation of Random Variables with Infinite Alphabets. 16. Entropy and Groups. Bibliography. Index.

 

 
1876-2003 Copyright, The Daily Republican Newspaper. All rights reserved.

Comment


Statistical Analysis for
International News Market Share
Stats for The Daily Republican Newspaper
IT Department Audit Generated 17-Dec-2002 24:01 PST

Frontpage Daily Access Protocals:
1 Clicks = 69,598,935
3 Downloads = 61,417,893
4 Pages = 20,982,487
5 Reader IP's = 8,291,175

Online News Marketshare by Country:
1 35,876  30.32% 32461 31.09% 649993 26.69% Network
2 32,051  27.09% 27032 25.89% 737707 30.29% US Comm
3 23,395 19.77% 20458 19.59% 488746 20.07% Unknown
4 7,286 6.16% 6690 6.41% 113736 4.67% US Educational
5 4,912 4.15% 4470 4.28% 161374 6.63% Germany
6 2,513 2.12% 2197 2.10% 37308 1.53% United States
7 2,036 1.72% 1820 1.74% 64790 2.66% Japan
8 1,489 1.26% 1392 1.33% 26783 1.10% Canada
9 1,072 0.91% 1006 0.96% 20278 0.83% United Kingdom
10 1,007 0.85% 951 0.91% 20396 0.84% US Military
11 839 0.71% 586 0.56% 12816 0.53% Finland
12 831 0.70% 765 0.73% 14196 0.58% Non-Profit Org
13 434 0.37% 381 0.36% 8705 0.36% France
14 396 0.33% 338 0.32% 6167 0.25% Netherlands
15 373 0.32% 350 0.34% 6110 0.25% US Government
16 312 0.26% 296 0.28% 5171 0.21% Australia
17 271 0.23% 257 0.25% 4187 0.17% Italy
18 256 0.22% 227 0.22% 3148 0.13% Spain
19 250 0.21% 232 0.22% 3750 0.15% Belgium
20 249 0.21% 243 0.23% 6910 0.28% Sweden
21 245 0.21% 221 0.21% 3387 0.14% Switzerland
22 190 0.16% 174 0.17% 3939 0.16% Poland
23 152 0.13% 121 0.12% 2136 0.09% Turkey
24 144 0.12% 105 0.10% 1579 0.06% Portugal
25 137 0.12% 128 0.12% 1839 0.08% Denmark
26 120 0.10% 117 0.11% 4671 0.19% Russian Federation
27 109 0.09% 100 0.10% 1640 0.07% Austria
28 105 0.09% 100 0.10% 1936 0.08% Brazil
29 105 0.09% 100 0.10% 1656 0.07% Singapore
30 102 0.09% 88 0.08% 1617 0.07% New Zealand
31 90 0.08% 86 0.08% 1953 0.08% Malaysia
32 86 0.07% 81 0.08% 1005 0.04% Mexico
33 75 0.06% 74 0.07% 2030 0.08% Israel
34 63 0.05% 57 0.05% 858 0.04% Czech Republic
35 63 0.05% 61 0.06% 707 0.03% Hong Kong
36 60 0.05% 50 0.05% 963 0.04% Arpanet
37 57 0.05% 52 0.05% 1417 0.06% India
38 50 0.04% 48 0.05% 661 0.03% Norway
39 47 0.04% 43 0.04% 1041 0.04% Ireland
40 46 0.04% 42 0.04% 526 0.02% Argentina
41 45 0.04% 44 0.04% 597 0.02% Thailand
42 38 0.03% 38 0.04% 757 0.03% Philippines
43 35 0.03% 34 0.03% 818 0.03% Hungary
44 28 0.02% 26 0.02% 937 0.04% Croatia
45 23 0.02% 22 0.02% 589 0.02% Saudi Arabia
46 21 0.02% 20 0.02% 277 0.01% Chile
47 21 0.02% 21 0.02% 498 0.02% Yugoslavia
48 19 0.02% 19 0.02% 488 0.02% Costa Rica
49 19 0.02% 19 0.02% 155 0.01% Estonia
50 16 0.01% 9 0.01% 206 0.01% Taiwan

Top 10 Access Port Communicator Software
1 11377 9.62% Mozilla/4.0 (MSIE 6.0; Win NT 5.1)
2 5672 4.79% Mozilla/4.0 (MSIE 6.0; Windows 98)
3 5072 4.29% Mozilla/4.0 (MSIE 5.01; Win NT 5.0)
4 4835 4.09% Mozilla/4.0 ( MSIE 6.0; Win NT 5.0)
5 4419 3.73% W3CRobot/5.3.2 libwww/5.3.2
6 4418 3.73% Mozilla/5.5 ( MSIE 5.5)
7 3212 2.71% Mozilla/4.0 (MSIE 5.5; Win 98)
8 2871 2.43% Mozilla/4.0 ( MSIE 5.5; Win NT 5.0)
9 2822 2.39% Mozilla/4.0 ( MSIE 5.0; Win98 ext
10 2708 2.29% Mozilla/4.0 ( MSIE 6.0; Win NT 5.1
11 2479 2.10% Webclipping.com
12 2425 2.05% Mozilla/4.0 ( MSIE 6.0; Win NT 5.1; YComp 5.0.
13 2305 1.95% Mozilla/4.0 ( MSIE 5.5; Windows 98; Win 9x 4.90)
14 1813 1.53% Mozilla/3.01)
15 1594 1.35% Mozilla/4.0 ( MSIE 6.0; Windows 98; Win 9x 4.90)

[Editor's Note: The standard internet usage measurments deployed by the Daiy Republican Newspaper and its affiliate news publications were developed through consensus and identifies model methods, materials, or practices for digital newspapers,information services, and publishers. ]

   

     1876-2002 Copyright, The Daily Republican Newspaper. All rights reserved.

 

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